Action coeur de ville

L’agence Atelier 15, chargée par Rambouillet lors du précédent mandat d’analyser la situation du centre ville de Rambouillet a présenté son diagnostic au Conseil Municipal du 7 novembre 2020. Beaucoup d’entre vous ont sans doute déjà lu les articles de presse qui en ont fait le compte-rendu.

Notre Association a toujours accordé une grande importance à ce sujet car la vie du centre de notre cité est un élément important de patrimoine qui contribue à la qualité de vie de tous les Rambolitains. Nous pensons utile de souligner ici les points clés qui entrent dans le cadre de nos préoccupations.

l’Agence Atelier 15 s’est attachée à rechercher et analyser toutes les données disponibles pour évaluer les enjeux sociaux, urbains et économiques du développement du centre ville, appelé pour la circonstance Cœur de Ville. Pour ce faire elle a interrogé tous les acteurs publics et privés ayant un rôle dans la vie de ce centre ville et tout particulièrement les Rambolitains eux-mêmes, habitants, commerçants et salariés.

La présentation du diagnostic est faite selon 5 axes principaux, l’habitat, le développement économique et commercial, l’accessibilité et les communications, la mise en valeur de l’espace public et du patrimoine et l’accès aux équipements et services publics.

Axe 1: De la réhabilitation à la restructuration vers une offre attractive de l’habitat en centre-ville

Nous trouvons dans ce chapitre la confirmation des données que Marc Robert, alors maire de Rambouillet nous avait communiquées lors de nos dernières assemblées générales. En 2017, Rambouillet comptait 26736 habitants, en stagnation au cours de la dernière décennie. Du fait de l’offre tournée plutôt vers les grands logements et des prix élevés au m2, les actifs et notamment les jeunes ménages choisissent majoritairement de quitter Rambouillet pour s’installer en périphérie. Plus d’un quart de la population a plus de 60 ans.

La part de propriétaires occupants est largement majoritaire. L’offre a été soutenue au cours de dernières décennies. Près de 70% de logements ont été construits depuis 1970, aussi bien en logements individuels qu’en logements collectifs. Un effort important a aussi été poursuivi pour se rapprocher de l’objectif de 25% de logements sociaux (21% aujourd’hui). Ce développement urbain qui inquiète parfois nos adhérents a simplement permis de stabiliser la population de la commune qui doit prioritairement poursuivre la diversification de l’offre en termes de typologies et de statuts de logements

L’étude a porté aussi sur l’état du patrimoine bâti. 36 logements feraient partie du PPPI, (Patrimoine Privé Potentiellement Indigne). Cette situation, à ne pas négliger, n’est pas considérée cependant comme justifiant des actions lourdes mais plutôt des aides personnalisées.

Parmi les logements préoccupant se trouvent ceux du Pavillon de Toulouse pour lequel nous avons essayé d’intervenir dans la mesure de nos possibilités d’action et dans lequel des travaux sont maintenant envisagés.

A ce constat il faut ajouter les incidences de l’épidémie COVID qui pousse les personnes à rechercher des habitations individuelles avec jardin offrant une « bulle protégeant la cellule familiale », à la fois refuge et lieu possible d’activité grâce au télétravail. Cette tendance oblige à repenser l’urbanisme au delà du seul centre de Rambouillet

Nous suivrons avec attention ce que fera la nouvelle municipalité de ces données qui induisent en l’état la continuité de la politique de développement modéré menée au cours des précédents mandats.

Axe 2: Favoriser un développement économique et commercial équilibré

Rambouillet est loin des très fortes densités constatées pour des villes de même poids démographique avec 447 commerces et services y compris le pôle commercial du Bel-Air. Le taux de vacance commerciale ( locaux vides) reste limité, 6,7%, comparé à celui de villes équivalentes (entre 5et 25%)

Si l’offre est bien dimensionnée pour répondre aux besoins d’un clientèle de proximité, elle reste déséquilibrée entre celle du centre ville et celle du Bel-Air qui représente 57% des surfaces de vente

L’Agence propose deux axes de développement pour le cœur de ville

– Renforcer l’identité commerciale de l’hyper-centre en améliorant la composition de l’offre, image de marque Rambouillet plus forte, magasins éphémères, offres complémentaires en matière de décoration et d’équipement de la personne, meilleure articulation entre commerce, loisirs et culture pour profiter des atouts touristiques du centre.

– promouvoir un parcours marchand élargi pour inciter les habitants à fréquenter plus les axes principaux de la ville; aménagement de l’espace, visibilité des commerces et des enseignes, ambiance générale et animation commerciale

Parmi les propositions concrètes présentées, PARR serait très intéressée par un travail sur les enseignes, la signalétique, le mobilier urbain et l’aménagement urbain comportant une recherche sur les couleurs, les choix esthétiques et un apport végétal sur l’axe principal.

Axe 3: Développer l’accessibilité, la mobilité et les connexions

Rambouillet comporte des atouts certains: une offre de bus qui couvre l’essentiel des zones d’attractivité, des liaisons importantes avec le territoire de la Communauté d’Agglomération Rambouillet Territoire (CART), un bassin de vie concentrant les services et activités utiles, une politique de stationnent payant permettant de fluidifier le trafic et de nombreux itinéraires cyclables.

Mais Rambouillet connait aussi des faiblesses: les habitants ont une préférence marquée pour les déplacements en voiture ce qui crée de nombreux embouteillages sur les axes principaux, le stationnement en surface est préféré au stationnement en souterrain ce qui donne une image de rues saturées, les transports en commun sont insuffisant le samedi et en milieu de journée, le pôle de la gare à la circulation compliquée, crée une rupture de trafic avec le réseau urbain environnant.

Les préconisations qui suivent ce diagnostic vont dans trois directions

– développer la circulation cycliste, avec un meilleur maillage des pistes cyclables

– renforcer l’offre de transport en commun et raccordement aux voies rapides de l’Ile de France

– interventions urbaines et paysagères, avec notamment la reprise complète du pôle gare.

Axe 4: Mettre en valeur les formes urbaines, l’espace public et le patrimoine

PARR est évidemment très sensible à cet aspect de l’étude.

Rambouillet bénéficie d’un espace paysager remarquable, grâce à forêt qui attire 11 millions de visiteurs chaque année. La ville dispose d’un patrimoine urbain attractif; elle a mis en place un service du patrimoine très actif travaillant en partenariat avec l’Office de Tourisme qui agit au niveau de la CART.

Il est toutefois constaté que le patrimoine naturel est en danger: les espaces ruraux ( dont 38% de boisées) se sont réduits significativement au profit des espaces urbains au cours des 30 dernières années. Les infrastructures routières et ferroviaires constituent également de véritables coupures dans le paysage. l

La ville de Rambouillet dispose certes d’un patrimoine architectural remarquable et en périphérie d’un patrimoine végétal de grande qualité mais ils ne sont pas assez mis en valeur

Un travail doit donc être fait pour structurer le territoire autour de ses pôles d’attraction, tout en mettant en œuvre une politique d’actions foncières permettant à la fois de répondre aux besoins de logement et à la protection des paysages

Axe 5: Fournir l ‘accès aux équipements et services publics

La ville de Rambouillet constitue, en termes d’équipements et de services le pôle de la Communauté d’Agglomération. Mais si l’hyper centre de la ville dispose d’espaces publics exceptionnels, ils ne sont pas suffisamment mis en valeur: cônes de vue, sens de circulation, espaces de repos et de rencontres….)

PARR s’intéressera aux étapes suivantes et notamment à leur mise en oeuvre par la municipalité. Nous vous rendrons compte de nos interventions mais comptons aussi sur vos réactions que nous vous invitons à nous communiquer

Pierre-Yves Burgaud

Vice-Président de PARR

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